India is a vast country with a rich and varied history. Situated in southern Asia, it is bordered by the Indian Ocean to the south, the Arabian Sea to the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal to the southeast. India has a long coastline, and its topography consists of the Himalayan mountains in the north, the Indo-Gangetic Plain in the north-central region, and the Deccan Plateau in the south.
The country is divided into 29 states and 7 union territories. The states are further subdivided into districts. The capital of India is New Delhi, and the official language is Hindi.
India has a population of over 1.2 billion people, making it the second most populous country in the world. The majority of the population is Hindu, followed by Muslims, Christians, Sikhs, and Buddhists.
The economy of India is the seventh largest in the world in terms of nominal GDP, and the third largest in terms of purchasing power parity. The service sector is the largest contributor to the GDP, followed by agriculture and industry.
India is a federal republic with a parliamentary democracy. The President of India is the head of state, and the Prime Minister is the head of government. The Parliament of India is bicameral, consisting of the Lok Sabha (House of the People) and the Rajya Sabha (Council of States).
India is a founding member of the United Nations, and is a member of the G20, the World Trade Organization, the International Monetary Fund, and the World Bank. India is also a nuclear weapons state.