Bosnia and Herzegovina is a country located in Southeastern Europe. The country is bordered by Croatia to the north and west, Serbia to the east, and Montenegro to the south. Bosnia and Herzegovina has a population of around 3.8 million people, and the capital and largest city is Sarajevo.
The country is home to a diverse range of peoples and cultures, and is split into two main regions: the Bosnian region in the north and west, and the Herzegovinian region in the south and east. The Bosnian region is predominantly Bosniak, while the Herzegovinian region is predominantly Croat.
The country has a long history of human habitation, and was first settled by the Illyrians in the Bronze Age. The region later came under the rule of the Roman Empire, and later the Byzantine Empire. In the Middle Ages, the region was conquered by the Slavic peoples, and Bosnia became a part of the Kingdom of Croatia.
In the 14th century, Bosnia was annexed by the Ottoman Empire, and remained under Ottoman rule for over 400 years. During this time, the Bosniaks converted to Islam, and the region became known as the Bosnian Eyalet.
In 1878, Bosnia was occupied by Austria-Hungary, and remained under Austro-Hungarian rule until 1918. In 1918, Bosnia and Herzegovina became a part of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.
During World War II, Bosnia was occupied by Nazi Germany, and many Bosniaks were killed or deported to concentration camps.
After the war, Bosnia and Herzegovina became a part of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. In 1992, the country declared independence, and was subsequently recognized by the international community.
The Bosnian War broke out in 1992, and lasted until 1995. The war was fought between the Bosnian government, the Bosnian Serbs, and the Bosnian Croats. The war ended with the signing of the Dayton Peace Agreement, which created the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Republika Srpska.
Since the war, Bosnia and Herzegovina has made significant progress in rebuilding its economy and infrastructure. The country is now a member of the Council of Europe and the United Nations, and is seeking membership in the European Union and NATO.