Cyprus, an island in the eastern Mediterranean, is a sovereign state and a member of the European Union. With a population of just over 1.1 million, it is the smallest EU member state.
The island has a long and complex history, having been under the rule of the Ottoman Empire, the British Empire, and, since 1960, the Republic of Cyprus.
The island is divided into two main parts: the Greek Cypriot-controlled southern part, and the Turkish Cypriot-controlled northern part. The division of the island is a result of the 1974 Turkish invasion, which was triggered by a Greek-backed coup.
Since the invasion, the island has been de facto divided, with the two sides living in separate areas and governing themselves independently.
There have been numerous attempts to reunite the island, but all have failed. The most recent effort, the Cyprus reunification talks, began in February 2014 but broke down in July 2017.
The island has a Mediterranean climate, with hot, dry summers and mild, wet winters. The terrain is mostly mountainous, with the Kyrenia Mountains in the north and the Troodos Mountains in the south.
The economy of Cyprus is based on tourism, agriculture, and financial services. The island is a popular tourist destination, with over 2 million visitors each year. Agriculture accounts for around 4% of the GDP, with products such as potatoes, citrus fruits, wheat, barley, and olives being exported.
The financial sector is also important, with Cyprus being home to over 100 international banks.
The official languages of Cyprus are Greek and Turkish. Greek is the dominant language, spoken by around 77% of the population. Turkish is spoken by around 18% of the population, with the remaining 5% speaking other languages.
Cyprus is a unitary presidential republic. The president is the head of state and the commander-in-chief of the armed forces. The president is elected by popular vote for a five-year term and can serve up to two terms.
The prime minister is the head of government and is appointed by the president. The prime minister is responsible for leading the Cabinet and for formulating government policy.
The Cabinet, which is made up of the prime minister and up to 20 ministers, is responsible for making decisions on government policy.
The unicameral House of Representatives is the legislature. There are 80 members, elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms.
The judicial branch is independent of the executive and the legislature. The Supreme Court is the highest court and is made up of the Court of Appeal and the High Court.
Cyprus is a member of the United Nations, the Council of Europe, the Commonwealth of Nations, and the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, among other international organizations.